From Chaos to Clarity!


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1.  Budzynski, T.; Budzynski, H.; Jordy, J.; Tang, H.; Claypoole, K.: ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE WITH PHOTIC STIMULATAION AND EDR FEEDBACK.  Journal of Neurotherapy.  Fall/Winter 1999:  11-21

Significantly improved GPA and academic performance, as well, improvements were long lasting, as demonstrated at follow up five months later.  Further it was demonstrated, through EEG brain map testing, that alpha levels were increased both during and after light stimulation, and continued to increase even when students were involved in complex information processing.  This is significant as these same students, prior to light stimulation sessions, had shown a slowing of alpha frequencies during complex information processing.  These findings are significant (and are validated by similar studies) in relation to the following: slowing of alpha frequencies, during complex information processing, are evident in individuals with ADD and learning disorders, whereas, peak alpha frequencies are demonstrated in gifted learners.  Light stimulation is a very effective means of increasing, and sustaining long term, the ideal alpha frequencies required for higher learning.

Note:  At the beginning of this study Budzynski provide a summarized report of the many studies done on light stimulation along with a synopsis of the findings.  This is very worthwhile reading.


2.  Joyce, M.; Siever, D; Twittey, M.: AUDIO-VISUAL ENTRAINMENT PROGRAM AS A TREATMENT FOR BEHAVIOR DISORDERS IN A SCHOOL SETTING. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2000, Vol 4, No 2: 9-25

Thirty children with A.D.D. and eight reading challenged children received SLE for three months.  Students made significant improvements in attention and reaction time, and there was significant reduction in impulsivity and variability.  In the reading group, there was an 18-month improvement in instructional reading level and a half year advancement in grade level.


3.  Joyce, M. New Visions School NeuroTechnology Replication Project. 2000-2001.  Seven School Minnesota Study Using AVE to Treat Attentional Disorders.  Published in The Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol 4, No.2, February 2001.

This study was conducted at seven schools and included 204 students with learning, reading, impulsivity and inattention difficulties

Results were exceptional and are considered highly significant in scientific terms.  There was significant improvement in inattention, hyperactivity, anxiousness, depression and reading.  Reading scores were improved at every grade level, grades 1-11, with the average gain for grade seven students being one full year gain,  after only 3 months of audio-visual entrainment.  It should be noted that audio-visual entrainment produced ‘No’ contraindication or negative results for any of the students in the study.

4.  Shealy, N; Cady, R. ; Cox, R.; Liss, S.; Clossen, W.; Veehoff, D.; A COMPARISON OF DEPTHS OF


PRODUCED BY BRAINWAVE ENTRAINMENT – SHEALY AND FOREST INSTITURE OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. Journal of Neurological and Orthopaedic Medicine and Surgery, 17(1):32-34, 1996.

“Eleven subjects had peridural blood analysis pre and post ten minutes of audio-visual entrainment )AVE).   Which produced significant and instantaneous increases in serotonin (21%), norepinephrine (18% – see research study), dopamine, growth hormone, beta endorphins (25%), oxytocin, luteinizing hormone, cholinesterose, progestersose, prolactin, and decreased melatonin.”  These are all important neurotransitters.

Increase in these important brain neurotransmitters is an important part of why we are seeing significant improvements in academics, behaviors and social awareness.


5.  Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1993). A PILOT INVESTIGATION OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL


Researcher, Journal of the Texas Center for Educational Research, 4, 65 –73

Fourteen learning disabled boys received 40, 25 minute,  SLE sessions over the course of two months.  (Also they had 40 home sessions of listening to special audio beats recorded from the SLE sessions).  Another group of 12 learning disabled boy received 18 SLE sessions, there were some significant results with this group, but as they only received half the ideal number of sessions, we will instead focus on the results of the 14 boys who had 40 sessions.

There was statistically significant increases in IQ, memory, reading and spelling.  According to the pre – post observations (Burk’s Behavior) by Teachers the boys improved on all 19 scales, with statistically significant decreases in anxiety, dependency and  suffering (sense of persecution).  And a significant reduction in  poor: ego strength, co-ordination, intelligence, academics and anger control.

Parents saw improvement in 17 of the 19 measures on the Burk’s Behavior scale and both Parents and Teachers had considerable agreement that the children’s behavior improved following treatment with audio-visual entrainment.


6.  Russell, H. L. (1997). Intellectual, auditory and photic stimulation and changes in functioning in children and        adults. Biofeedback, 25 (1), 16-17, 23, 24. (Note:  This is a Feature Article based on previous studies)

“neuronal (neurons) activation resulting from photic and auditory stimulation…appear to bring about changes in brain functioning that can be measured not only by changes in EEG frequency activity, increases in glucose and oxygen metabolism, increase in cerebral blood flow, changes in brain chemistry (Walter and Walter, 1949; Sappey-Marinier, 1992; Posner and Raichle, 1994),but also changes in behavior.”

“Previous work (Lou, Henricksen, Bruhn, et al., 1989; Zametkin, Nordahl, Gross, et al., 1990) has indicated that a reduced blood flow in the corpus striatum is found in individuals with ADHD problems and that one of Ritalin’s mechanisms of action is to increase blood flow in that area.  Other work (Fox & Raichle, 1985) has shown that photic stimulation increases blood flow…. If the two forms of stimulation (chemical and photic) have a common mechanism of action, then the possibility arises of the combination having an additive or integrative effect.  A possible outcome might be a reduction in the amount of medication required to have a therapeutic effect.”

“use of AVE (audio-visual entrainment)….appears to bring about improvements in cognitive functioning and behavior that may continue to exist after the orignial stimulation has ended……There appears to be a reasonable possibility that SINA (stimulation induced neural activation) results in increased growth and development of the brain.”   Research studies have demonstrated (e.g. Maletic and Malinow, 1999), that photic stimulation is able to create new dendritic growth.


7.  Micheletti, L. S. (1999). The Use of Auditory and Visual Stimulation for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

This study by Lawrence Micheletti is unique in that it is the largest ADHD/ADD study to date (n = 99).  Children in the AVE group received 40 sessions over a 6 week period.  There was a very significant gain in the Raven IQ scores and in the WRAT reading scores and significant gains in the WRAT spelling scores


8.  Olmstead, R. (2000). Pilot Study Investigation of Auditory and Visual Stimulation in the Reduction of

Stimulant Medication Intake of ADHD Subjects.  Auditory Visual Stimulation (entrainment) Journal 1: 3, 4-9


This study was conducted with 65 participants at the Research Centre for Alternative Medicine, Calgary.

This study demonstrated 76% of the participants were able to reduce or come off medication altogether

(44% were able to reduce medication intake; 32% were able to go off medication completely).

Further results of the study indicated that an AVE treatment program can lead to a significant reduction in the cognitive and

behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD.  The research was conducted by Ruth Olmstead and overseen by

Dr. Bud Ricki, M.B., B.S., FRCP (C), founder & director, of the Research Centre For Alternative Medicine.

This Centre now operates under the name ‘Canadian Institute of Natural & Integrative Medicine’, Calgary.

*You will  find this study located in the AVS Journal “Premier Issue” or at the U of C library or in the Alberta Parent Quarterly.


9.  Carter, J. L., & Russell, H.L. (1997).  EEG Driven Audio-Visual Stimulation Unit for Enhancing

Cognitive Abilities of Learning Disordered Boys:  Final Report.  Washington, D.C.:  W.S.

Department of Education (SBIR), Contract number RA94130002.

Significantly increased performance on cognitive tests in both verbal and non-verbal areas.  The changes

were observed both at the end of training and on 16 months follow-up.  Parents and teachers of the

boys rated their behavior as significantly improved.


There was no statistical difference between the boys on AVS/EEG and those on Ritalin suggesting that the effects of AVS/EEG may be equivalent to the effects of Ritalin in cognitive areas.  The AVS/EEG might be an alternative in cases where medication is ineffective, only partially effective, or undesirable.   (Phase Two Final Report – see also – Phase One Final Report)


10.  Budzynski T. & Seiver D., (2002). Using Audio-Visual Entrainment to Improve Mental Function in Seniors with Age Related Cognitive Decline.

11.  Tansey, M. (1985). Brainwave Signatures – An index Reflective of the Brain’s Functional Neruoanatomy: Further Findings on the Effect of EEG Sensorimotor Rhythm Biofeedback Training on the Neurologic Precursors of Learning Disabilities, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 31, 85-99.

Eight learning disabled boys, aged 7 – 15 years old, received sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) training through biofeedback (S & L entrainment also provides SMR training).  SMR training resulted in increased sensorimotor transactions (SMR amplitude), and increased symmetry between the hemispheres and increased intercommunication between the right and left brain hemispheres – reflective of the higher cortical functions of these ‘no longer learning disabled boys’. 

All eight boys manifested increases in IQ of at least 15 IQ points.  Both verbal and performance IQ scores increased for all boys.  Significant improvements were made in the following areas:  academic, behavior, reading, reading comprehension, writing, arithmetic and in academic deficits attributed to ocular impairments.

Discussion:  It is well known that when the sensorimotor is under active (lays lengthwise along the midline of the brain and covers both the right and left cerebral hemispheres) the individual is unable to inhibit motor responses adequately when exposed to stimuli.  The body reacts and responds to inner/outer stimulus easily, without a mechanism to inhibit, the physical body becomes hyperactive and depending on surrounding stimulus it is difficult to physically relax.

Research findings indicate activation of the sensorimotor subnetwork greatly improves brain functionality.  This improvement may possibly be due to the SMR subnetwork utilizing heretofore untapped neuronal matrices – both within itself and its myriad synaptic associations within the global matrix comprising the brain and central nervous system.  As the global matrix, from the sensorimotor subnetwork outward, ‘exercises’ itself out of a limited learning posture the brain is now more fit and available for higher-order experiential learning.


12.  Fox, P.T., & Raichle, M. E. (1985). Stimulus rate determines regional blood flow in striate cortex. Annals of Neurophysiology, 27, 480-486.

Results showed photic (light) stimulation significantly improves cerebral blood flow by approximately 28%.

Note:   Adequate cerebral blood flow is an important factor in cognitive function.  QEEG brain maps of individuals with ADD have demonstrated that adequate cerebral blood flow is lacking.

Slow brain-wave disorders (i.e. ADHD) has been linked with lower than normal blood flow.

One of the main reasons why Ritalin works so well for ADHD is that Ritalin increases cerebral blood flow to the brain, upwards to 30%.

Audio- visual entrainment significantly increases cerebral blood flow by 28%, comparible increase to Ritalin.  This would explain why in the Dr. Rieki study how 76 % of children with ADHD after using audio-visual entrainment had such relief of symptoms, they were able to reduce AHDH medication, and for one-third of the children, come off ADHD medication altogether.


13.  Jausovec, N. (1996). Differences in EEG alpha activity related to giftedness. Intelligence, 23, 159-173.

Sufficient alpha production is a key component during information processing, the higher the alpha production the better the learning outcomes.  This study demonstrated that gifted students produce higher alpha frequencies during information processing than average students.  Note:  Numerous studies have indicated that individuals with learning disorders and ADD/ADHD suppress alpha frequencies (slowing of alpha) during information processing.


14.  Denkowski, K. (1984). The Effects of EMG-Assisted Relaxation Training on the Academic Performance, Locus of Control, and Self-Esteem of Hyperactive Boys. Biofeedback, 9, 353-364.

After 6 sessions of biofeedback the treated group attained significantly higher reading and language performance and made a significant internal shift in locus of control.


15.  Omizo, M.M. (1980). The effects of biofeedback induced relaxation on hyperactive adolescent boys.  Journal of Psychology, 105, 131-138.

After 4 EMG Biofeedback sessions there were significant improvements in attention and impulsivity on the Matching Familiar Figures test.


16.  Dunn, F.M. & Howell, R. J. (1982). Relaxation training and its relationship to hyperactive boys.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 1, 92-100.

This study demonstrated there was significant improvement in behavior observations, parent ratings, and psychological tests after 10 EMG biofeedback training session

Stergiakouli, E; Hamshere, M; Homans, P; Langley, K; Zaharieva, I; Hawi, Z; Kent, L; Gill, M; Williams, N; Owen, M; O’Donovan, M; Thapar, A.: Investigating the Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to the Risk and Pathogenesis of ADHD. Journal of Psychiatry, 2011.

Conclusion:  Both common and rare genetic variants appear to be relevant to ADHD and index-shared biological pathways.